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Hungry People Get More Free Things

Hungry People Get More Free Things


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Keep your stomach and wallet satiated when shopping

In one experiment where binder clips were free, the hungry cohort left with 70% more than satiated participants.

You probably know that walking into a grocery store on an empty stomach is unwise. Now a new study suggests walking into a mall while hungry is just as bad—at least for your wallet. The study's title sums up the finding: "Hunger promotes acquisition of nonfood objects." Reporting in the journal PNAS, researchers at the University of Minnesota say they conducted five experiments whose results consistently showed an increase in the desire to acquire things when people reported being hungry. In one experiment where the items (in this case, binder clips) were free, the hungry cohort left with 70% more than satiated participants. And even when people had to pay (this time for department store items), the hungry ones spent 64% more.

"It's probably better to feed yourself before any type of shopping, whether you're going on an actual shopping trip or shopping online," researcher Alison Jing Xu tells Smithsonian. "And if you're really hungry, you'd better think twice before purchasing any items at all or you might regret those purchases later." (The study notes that "hunger does not influence how much they like nonfood objects.") New Scientist reports Xu was inspired by a shopping trip of her own, during which she bought 10 pairs of tights on an empty stomach, "not just the two I needed." She says ghrelin, a hormone released by the stomach that makes people seek out food, may also affect other behaviors. (Doctors are puzzled by a boy who's never hungry.)

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Join Our Facebook Group to Connect with The Ludwigs and Gain Instant Support Along Your Journey

Forget everything you’ve been taught about dieting. In Always Hungry?, renowned endocrinologist Dr. David Ludwig explains why traditional diets don’t work, and presents a radical new plan to help you lose weight without hunger, improve your health, and feel great.

For over three decades, Dr. Ludwig has been at the forefront of research into weight control. His groundbreaking studies show that overeating doesn’t make you fat the process of getting fat makes you overeat.

Always Hungry? turns dieting on its head with a three-phase program that ignores calories and targets fat cells directly. The recipes and meal plan include luscious high-fat foods (like nuts and nut butters, full-fat dairy, avocados, and dark chocolate), savory proteins, and natural carbohydrates. This is dieting without deprivation.


1. Solve discomfort caused by medication side effects
Some medications cause dry mouth. Before meals, ask your older adult to chew some sugarless gum, brush their teeth, or use an oral rinse.

This gets saliva flowing, reduces discomfort, and improves their ability to taste, which can make them more willing to eat.

2. Get rid of strange tastes caused by medication side effects
Some medications cause a strange taste in the mouth that affects the way food or water tastes.

If meat tastes strange or metallic, serve different sources of protein like beans or dairy. Use plastic forks and knives if metal silverware makes the taste worse.

If water tastes funny, add mint, sliced fruit, lemon, or cucumber. You could also try flavored water enhancers (like this one), available at grocery and drugstores.

3. Make mealtime a pleasant experience
Some people respond well to a nice setting and good company for dinner. Set the table, light candles, and put on soft music.

It can be lonely or depressing to eat alone all the time. Sit and eat with them, chatting about pleasant topics during the meal.

4. Give choice and control
When someone is ill or frail, they lose their independence. Refusing to eat can feel like a way to regain some control over their own life.

Give your older adult back some of that control by giving choices between different foods or involving them in meal planning.

5. Serve water between meals and limit fluids during meals
Dehydration can suppress appetite, so it’s important to keep your older adult hydrated.

Some liquids are needed to help moisten and swallow food safely, but serving a lot of fluids during meals can fill seniors up too much to eat well.

Try to keep the majority of beverages for post-meal relaxation and also encourage them to drink water between meals as a healthy habit.

6. Make the flavors stronger
Taste buds often become less sensitive as we age. Bland foods certainly won’t help stimulate appetite.

Try using stronger or more seasonings and make sure food isn’t sour tasting.

7. Experiment with foods at different temperatures
Some people change their preferences for food temperature. Try hot, warm, or cold meals to see what temperature they like best.

8. Stimulate appetite with a little alcohol
Having a small amount of beer or wine before a meal can be a safe way to stimulate your older adult’s appetite.

Of course, check with the doctor first to make sure alcohol won’t interfere with medication or harm their health.

9. Take advantage of hungry moments
If your older adult asks for more food, give second helpings or larger portions.

It doesn’t matter what time it is or what the food is, just take advantage of their hunger to get a few more calories and nutrients into their body.

By DailyCaring Editorial Team

This article wasn’t sponsored, but does contain some affiliate links. We never link to products or services for the sole purpose of making a commission. Recommendations are based on our honest opinions. For more information, see How We Make Money.


Easy dinner recipes

Save yourself stress in the kitchen with our easy dinner recipes, from filling pasta bakes to warming curries and simple traybakes the family will love.

Chicken pasta bake

Enjoy this gooey cheese and chicken pasta bake for the ultimate weekday family dinner. Serve straight from the dish with a dressed green salad

Easy-to-scale cheesy fish pie with kale

Double the ingredients in this easy fish pie if you need to feed four, or quadruple for eight. This comforting dinner is perfect for midweek, and adaptable for any situation


Cooking For A Crowd

Do you need to cook for a crowd? All the recipes on CDKitchen let you change the number of servings from 1 to 1000 (and higher!) but sometimes you need a recipe that gives you extra help when cooking for a crowd. These recipes are tailored to large groups and often give hints and tips for working with large quantities of food. So try these recipes the next time you need some large crowd recipes for a family reunion, church picnic or school event.

If you need to serve a big group this recipe is ideal! This is an easy and basic macaroni and cheese recipe that is sure to please everyone.

Method: stovetop, oven
Time: 30-60 minutes

This mac and cheese recipe is great for large groups and is made doubly cheesy and creamy with both velveeta and cheddar cheese.

Method: stovetop, oven
Time: 1-2 hours

Serving a large group doesn't have to be difficult. This scalable meatloaf recipe not only tastes good but is simple to prepare. There are also different flavor variations to.

Method: oven
Time: 1-2 hours

Cooking for a large group? This recipe for Spanish rice is always a hit and is super easy to scale up or down to the quantity you need.

Method: stovetop, oven
Time: 1-2 hours

Need to serve a large group (or a gaggle of teenagers)? These sloppy joes are tasty AND easy to make and work well made in a large batch.

Method: stovetop
Time: 2-5 hours

Every day we send out a featured recipe and our editor's favorite picks. Don't miss out!

Pasta bakes are perfect for feeding a crowd. This ziti dish made with both beef and sausage is delicious, quick-cooking, and super easy to prepare ahead of time for a stress-free.

Method: stovetop, oven
Time: 1-2 hours

Rotini with chopped up veggies like broccoli, zucchini, and red pepper tossed in Italian dressing with cheese.

Method: stovetop
Time: 1-2 hours

Bursting with flavor, this traditional scalloped potatoes dish is the ideal recipe to treat a crowd. It's easy to prepare, leaving you with plenty of time to relax and.

Method: oven
Time: 2-5 hours

Coleslaw is always a crowd pleaser and this group-size recipe makes it easy to please the hungry masses.

Great for large group meals during the holidays. The recipe makes small servings so feel free to increase the amount if you'd like more hearty portions.

Method: stovetop, oven
Time: 2-5 hours

When you need to cook for hundreds of people there's no time to mess around, and these baked beans with brown sugar, bacon and onions certainly don't!

Method: convection oven, oven
Time: 1-2 hours

Made with basil, garlic powder, garlic, salt and pepper, spaghetti sauce, eggs, Parmesan cheese, cottage or ricotta cheese, salt

Method: stovetop, oven
Time: 1-2 hours

"Hello? Yes, I'd like to order a six foot loaf of Italian, please." This might be the most fun you'll ever have making a sandwich.

Perfect for a large group, these potatoes are easy to make and loved by everyone.

Method: stovetop, oven
Time: 30-60 minutes

You're gonna have a lot of happy people if you serve this recipe. It has just the right combination of ingredients that makes a simple, but flavorful jambalaya. Adjust the Creole.

Method: stovetop
Time: 1-2 hours

Italian beef sandwiches are as classic Chicago as deep dish pizza. Roast beef served on a French roll with some mozzarella brings home a taste of the windy city.

Method: oven
Time: 2-5 hours

Baked beans are the quintessential picnic and backyard barbecue food. If you are entertaining a large group, this recipe will serve about 50 people

Method: oven
Time: over 5 hours

Milk and butter keep these eggs creamy oven-baking the recipe keeps your arm from falling off from scrambling all those eggs by hand.

Method: oven
Time: 30-60 minutes

If you've got a big crowd to serve, here's just the meatloaf recipe. The Cracker Barrel secret is mixing in biscuit crumbs into the beef mixture for the.

Method: convection oven
Time: 1-2 hours

A seasoned rice dish that can be served with any kind of meat or vegetable. With rich infusions of mouth-watering stocks and aromatic hints of garlic, this dish is a favorite at any.

Method: stovetop, oven
Time: 1-2 hours

Made with ham, potatoes, cream of mushroom soup, Colby jack cheese, mozzarella cheese, cheddar cheese

Method: oven
Time: 1-2 hours

Whether you're going all-out and making the full chicken and biscuit pot pie recipe or scaling it down to feed a crowd of 10 or 20, you're going to have many happy.

Method: stovetop, oven
Time: 1-2 hours

You'll make a crowd happy with this creamy hamburger stroganoff. Ground beef and mushrooms are cooked in a creamy sauce and served over egg noodles.

Method: stovetop
Time: 30-60 minutes

This smooth tasting punch is made with lemonade and orange juice with lemon-lime soda and a bottle of Southern Comfort. Yes, a bottle.

These breakfast burritos, filled with scrambled eggs, turkey or ham, and fresh vegetables, are a great way to serve a large group.


2018 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics

This fact sheet is divided into the following sections:

Hunger concepts and definitions

Hunger defines a short-term physical discomfort as a result of chronic food shortage, or in severe cases, a life-threatening lack of food. (National Research Council, 2006)

World hunger refers to hunger aggregated to the global level. Related terms include food insecurity and malnutrition. Food insecurity refers to limited or unreliable access to foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate (National Research Council, 2006). Malnutrition is a condition resulting from insufficient intake of biologically necessary nutrients (National Research Council, 2006). Although malnutrition includes both overnutrition and undernutrition, the focus for global hunger is undernutrition.

There are two basic types of malnutrition/undernutrition. The first and most important is protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), or a lack of calories and protein. Food is converted into energy by humans, and the energy contained in food is measured by calories. Protein is necessary for key body functions, including the development and maintenance of muscles. Protein-energy malnutrition is the more lethal form of malnutrition/hunger and is the type of malnutrition that is referred to when world hunger is discussed. This leads to growth failure. Principal types of growth failure are:

  • Based on physical measurements, like weight, malnutrition can be broken down into moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM), with SAM being worse (Black et al., 2016).
  • There are two types of acute malnutrition. Wasting (also called marasmus) is having a very low weight for a person’s height. Nutritional edema (also called kwashiorkor) is swollen feet, face or limbs (UNICEF, 2015). See visual illustrations here.
  • Stunting is being too short for a person’s age. It is a slow, cumulative process and develops over a long period as a result of inadequate nutrition or repeated infections, or both. Stunted children may have normal body proportions but look younger than their actual age.

Source: UNICEF/WHO/The World Bank, Levels and Trends in Child Malnutrition, 2018, p. 3

The second type of malnutrition is micronutrient (vitamin and mineral) deficiency. This is not the type of malnutrition that is referred to when world hunger is discussed, though it is certainly very important. Specific examples of micronutrient deficiency, such as Vitamin A deficiency, are discussed below. (For more examples see UNICEF Nutrition in Emergencies Lesson 2.1 p 11 and for a good overview of malnutrition topics see all of Lesson 2.)

Number of hungry people in the world

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that about 815 million people of the 7.6 billion people in the world, or 10.7%, were suffering from chronic undernourishment in 2016. Almost all the hungry people live in lower-middle-income countries. There are 11 million people undernourished in developed countries (FAO 2015 for individual country estimates, see Annex 1. For other valuable sources, especially if interested in particular countries or regions, see IFPRI 2016 and Rosen et. al. 2016).

Source: FAO, The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World, 2017 p. 7

Progress in reducing the number of hungry people

The vast majority of hungry people live in lower-middle-income regions, which saw a 42 percent reduction in the prevalence of undernourished people between 1990–92 and 2012–14. Despite this progress, in 2016, the global prevalence of undernourishment has been rising (Food and Agricultural Organization [FAO] et al., 2017). Africa has the highest prevalence of undernourishment, but as the most populous region in the world, Asia has the highest number of undernourished people (FAO et al., 2017). Prevalence is the proportion of a population affected by a disease or showing a certain characteristic (expressed as a percentage), and number is simply the count of people in the population with a disease or showing a certain characteristic.

  • There has been the least progress in the sub-Saharan region, where about 23 percent of people remain undernourished – the highest prevalence of any region in the world. Nevertheless, the prevalence of undernourishment in sub-Saharan Africa has declined from 33.2 percent in 1990– 92 to 23.2 percent in 2014–16, although the number of undernourished people has actually increased (FAO et al., 2017).
  • In Southern Asia, which includes the countries of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, the prevalence of undernourishment is rising again, increasing from 9.4 percent in 2015 to 11.5 percent in 2016 (FAO et al., 2017). Eastern Asia (where China is the largest country) and South-eastern Asia (including Indonesia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam) have reduced undernutrition substantially.
  • Latin America has the most successful developing region record in increasing food security however, the prevalence of undernutrition has been rising again, especially in South America, from 5 percent in 2015 to 5.6 percent in 2016 (FAO et al., 2017).

2015 marked the end of the monitoring period for the two internationally agreed targets for hunger reduction. The target for the Millennium Development Goals for lower-middle-income countries as a whole was to halve the proportion of hungry people by 2015 from the base year(s) of 1990-2, or from 23.2 percent to ll.6 percent. As the proportion in 2014-16 is 12.9 percent, the goal has almost been met. Following the Millennium Development Goals, the Sustainable Development Goals aim to end all forms of malnutrition by 2030 (FAO et al., 2017).

World Food Summit target. The target set at the 1996 World Food Summit was to halve the number of undernourished people by 2015 from their number in 1990-92. Since 1990–92, the number of hungry people in lower-middle-income regions has fallen by over 200 million, from 991 million to 790.7 million. However, the goal is 495 million (half of 991 million), which means that the target was not reached.

(Source: FAO et al, 2015 pp 8-12)

Children and hunger

Children are the most visible victims of undernutrition. It is estimated that undernutrition—including stunting, wasting, deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc, and fetal growth restriction (when a baby does not grow to its normal weight before birth)—is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45 percent of all child deaths in 2011 (UNICEF, World Health Organization [WHO], & The World Bank, 2018). Undernutrition magnifies the effect of every disease, including measles and malaria. The estimated proportions of deaths in which undernutrition is an underlying cause are roughly similar for diarrhea (61%), malaria (57%), pneumonia (52%), and measles (45%) (Black 2003, Bryce 2005). Undernutrition can also be caused by diseases, such as those that cause diarrhea, by reducing the body’s ability to convert food into usable nutrients.

From GAIN. https://www.gainhealth.org

  • Globally 150 million under-five-year olds were estimated to be stunted in 2017. (UNICEF, WHO, & The World Bank, 2018).
  • The global trend in stunting prevalence and numbers affected is decreasing. Between 2000 and 2017 stunting prevalence declined from 33 percent to 22 percent and numbers declined from 198 million to 150 million (UNICEF, WHO, & The World Bank, 2018).
  • In 2017, about half of all stunted children under five years of age lived in Asia and over one-third in Africa (UNICEF, WHO, & The World Bank, 2018).

Wasting and severe wasting

  • Globally, 50.5 million under-five-year olds were wasted (or low weight for height) in 2017 (UNICEF, WHO, & The World Bank, 2018).
  • Globally, wasting prevalence in 2017 was estimated at almost 8 percent (UNICEF, WHO, & The World Bank, 2018).
  • Approximately two-thirds of all wasted children under five years old lived in Asia and over one-quarter in Africa, with similar proportions for severely wasted children (UNICEF, WHO, & The World Bank, 2018).

Micronutrients

Quite a few trace elements or micronutrients—vitamins and minerals—are important for health. Three very important micronutrient deficiencies in terms of health consequences for people in lower-middle-income countries are:

  • In many lower-middle-income countries, iron deficiency anemia is aggravated by worm infections, malaria and other infectious diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis.
  • The major health consequences include poor pregnancy outcome, impaired physical and cognitive development, increased risk of morbidity (illness) in children and reduced work productivity in adults. Anemia contributes to 20 percent of all maternal deaths (FAO, 2017).
  • Vitamin A deficiency can cause night blindness and reduce the body’s resistance to disease. In children, vitamin A deficiency can also impair growth.
  • An estimated 250 million preschool children are vitamin A deficient. An estimated 250,000 to 500,000 vitamin A-deficient children become blind every year, half of them dying within 12 months of losing their sight (FAO, 2017).
  • Iodine deficiency is one of the main cause of impaired cognitive development in children, especially in iodine-deficient areas of Africa and Asia. About 38 million babies are born with iodine deficiency (FAO, 2017).
  • Iodine deficiency has a simple solution: iodized salt. Thanks to this intervention, the number of countries where iodine deficiency is a public health problem has been halved over the past decade. However, 54 countries still have a serious iodine deficiency problem. (WHO)

Does the world produce enough food to feed everyone?

The world produces enough food to feed everyone. For the world as a whole, per capita caloric availability and food diversity (the variety of food groups in a diet) have increased between the 1960s and 2011 (FAO, 2017). This growth in food availability, along with improved access to food, helped reduce the percentage of chronically undernourished people in lower-middle-income countries from about 30 percent in the 1990-92 to about 13 percent two decades later (FAO, 2017). A principal problem is that many people in the world still do not have sufficient income to purchase (or land to grow) enough food or access nutritious food. This is an element of “food security”. The FAO defines four dimensions of food security, all of which must be fulfilled simultaneously, for food security to exist. The four dimensions are: 1) physical availability of food, 2) economic and physical access to food, 3) food utilization, and 4) the stability of those other dimensions over time.

What are the causes of hunger?

Poverty is the principal cause of hunger. The causes of poverty include lack of resources, unequal income distribution in the world and within specific countries, conflict and hunger itself. As of 2013, when the most recent comprehensive data on global poverty was collected, about 767 million people are living below the international poverty line of less than $1.90 per person per day (The World Bank, 2016). This was a decrease of about 1 billion people below the poverty line from 1990 (The World Bank, 2016). However, although the number of people living in extreme poverty globally has been declining, in lower-middle-income regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa, the number is actually growing (FAO, 2017).

Hunger is also a cause of poverty, and thus of hunger, in a cyclical relationship. By causing poor health, small body size, low levels of energy and reductions in mental functioning, hunger can lead to even greater poverty by reducing people’s ability to work and learn, thus leading to even greater hunger. See Victoria et al. 2008.

Conflict. More than half (489 million) of the 815 million hungry people in the world live in countries affected by conflict (FAO et al., 2017). Ranging from non-state and state-based violence to one-sided violence, some of the conflicts that result in internal or international displacement have occurred in Syria, Yemen, Somalia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Myanmar, among many other countries throughout the world. In addition, most of the 19 countries listed by FAO as countries in complex, prolonged conflict are located in Africa (FAO et al., 2017).

In 2016, the average prevalence of undernourishment in countries undergoing conflict was about four percentage points greater than the prevalence in non-conflict countries (FAO et al., 2017). About 75 percent of children in the world who are stunted live in conflict areas (FAO et al., 2017).

Conflict in rural areas interferes with food and agriculture production, when transportation or market infrastructure are affected, land is seized or resources are destroyed, or the violence forces displacement from home (FAO, 2017). In addition to impacting food systems, conflict can also impact the economy, driving up food prices and making it difficult to buy necessary foods (FAO et al., 2017). In areas of severe violence, it may be difficult to deliver humanitarian assistance to address undernutrition (FAO, World Food Programme [WFP], & European Union [EU], 2018).

Political instability. In countries facing political instability, the resulting decline of the economy reduces the value of the country’s currency, leading to higher food prices and less nutritious food available for purchase (FAO, WFP, & EU, 2018). The loss of jobs in a declining economy also impacts people’s ability to afford food, as income declines as well (FAO, WFP, & EU, 2018). Countries like the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, Yemen and Venezuela are examples of countries in which political instability is currently affecting food security (FAO, WFP, & EU, 2018).

Food and agricultural policy. A lack of adoption of more productive technologies for agriculture in lower-middle-income countries contributes to large differences in amount of crops produced when compared with upper income countries (FAO, 2017). Within regions, the gap between potential crop yield and actual crop yield can be as large as 76 percent, as seen in Sub-Saharan Africa (FAO, 2017).

Also, past agricultural practices implemented to increase crop yield have unintended consequences in the form of land and soil degradation, and using up or polluting the available groundwater (FAO, 2017). This then affects future capacity for food production, as these resources have been permanently depleted (FAO, 2017). However, more countries are beginning to adopt “conservation agriculture,” where various strategies are used to prevent the rapid depletion of scarce natural resources (FAO, 2017).

Climate change. Throughout the previous 30 years, natural disasters have become increasingly common (FAO, 2017). Unstable weather patterns can lead to drought – in 2016, El Niño was responsible for conditions of severe food insecurity for 20 million people (FAO, WFP, & EU, 2018). On the other extreme, hurricane and cyclone seasons have produced more powerful storms, causing damage to livelihoods, agricultural production and local market prices, in countries in the Caribbean and Asia (FAO, 2017). In agricultural-driven areas, especially in parts of Africa (Somalia, southeastern Ethiopia, and countries in West Africa), drought has driven economic, food production and political stability crises (FAO, WFP, & EU, 2018). For countries facing prolonged conditions or yearly disasters, undernutrition worsens, as there is little time for recovery (FAO, 2017).

The ecological impacts of climate change can affect the emergence or re-emergence of diseases on a larger scale, especially those with vectors (like mosquitoes and fleas) that thrive in warm humid environments (FAO, 2017). Disease caused by these vectors can prolong the cycle of malnutrition (FAO, 2017).

Revised May 25, 2018, with the assistance of Crystal Lam, George Washington University, MPH candidate

Black, R. E., Allen, L. H., Bhutta, Z. A., Caulfield, L. E., De Onis, M., Ezzati, M., … & Maternal and Child Undernutrition Study Group. (2008). Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. The lancet, 371(9608), 243-260. (Article access is free but will require registration) Accessed September 2016.

Black, R. E., R. Laxminarayan, M. Temmerman, and N. Walker, editors. 2016. Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health. Disease Control Priorities, third edition, volume 2. Washington, DC: World Bank. doi:10.1596/978-1-4648-0348-2. Accessed May 2018.

Black, R. E., Morris, S. S., & Bryce, J. (2003). Where and why are 10 million children dying every year?. The lancet, 361(9376), 2226-2234. Accessed September 2016.

Black, R. E., Victora, C. G., Walker, S. P., Bhutta, Z. A., Christian, P., De Onis, M., … & Uauy, R. (2013). Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. The lancet, 382(9890), 427-451. Retrieved from http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2813%2960937-X/abstract (The article is available free of charge, but you will be required to register with Lancet). Accessed September 2016.

Bryce, J., Boschi-Pinto, C., Shibuya, K., Black, R. E., & WHO Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group. (2005). WHO estimates of the causes of death in children. The Lancet, 365(9465), 1147-1152. Accessed September 2016.

Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. (2013). “People affected by conflict: Humanitarian needs in numbers.” Retrieved from http://cred.be/sites/default/files/PAC2013.pdf. Accessed September 2016.

Food and Agriculture Organization. (2008). An introduction to the basic concepts of food security. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf. Accessed June 2017.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2017). The future of food and agriculture: Trends and challenges. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-i6583e.pdf. Accessed May 2018.

Food and Agriculture Organization, International Fund for Agricultural Development, World Food Program. (2015). “The state of food insecurity in the world 2015. Strengthening the enabling environment for food security and nutrition.” Rome: FAO.

Food and Agriculture Organization, International Fund for Agricultural Development, UNICEF, World Food Programme, & WHO. (2017). The state of food security and nutrition in the world 2017: Building resilience for peace and food security. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-i7695e.pdf. Accessed May 2018.

Food and Agriculture Organization, World Food Programme, & European Union. (2018). Global report of food crises 2018. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/fsin/docs/global_report/2018/GRFC_2018_Full_report_EN.pdf. Accessed May 2018.

Institute of Development Studies. (n.d.) “Hunger and Nutrition Commitment Index.” Retrieved from http://www.hancindex.org/. Accessed September 2016.

International Food Policy Research Institute. (2014). 2014 Global Food Policy Report. Accessed September 2016.

International Food Policy Research Institute. (2015). 2015 Global Hunger Index. Retrieved from https://www.ifpri.org/publication/2015-global-hunger-index-armed-conflict-and-challenge-hunger. Accessed September 2016.

International Food Policy Research Institute. (2016). 2016 Global Hunger Index. Retrieved from http://www.ifpri.org/publication/2016-global-hunger-index-getting-zero-hunger. Accessed December 2016.

National Research Council. (2006). Food Insecurity and Hunger in the United States: An Assessment of the Measure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/11578. Accessed May 2018.

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Rosen, S., Thorne, K., & Meade, B. (2016). International food security assessment, 2016-26. Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Accessed December 2016.



11 Healthy Foods That Actually Make You More Hungry

It sounds crazy, but it's true: What you're eating may make your stomach growl way before your next meal.

It sounds crazy, but it's true: What you're eating may make your stomach growl way before your next meal.

Even when you've taken the time to eat breakfast in your morning rush, sometimes you're staring down the vending machine a few hours later, stomach rumbling. What gives? Your breakfast choice. "Certain foods can signal your body to store them as fat, rather than use them for fuel," says David Perlmutter, MD, a board-certified neurologist and author of Brain Maker. The highly processed, high-carb foods that we often turn to when stressed, busy, or just plain hungry make our insulin levels spike, causing blood sugar to crash and making us feel hungry again&mdasheven if we've just eaten, he explains.

And while you're likely familiar with the usual culprits&mdashfruit juice, soda, cookies, and pastries&mdashthere are plenty of others masquerading as "healthy" choices that can make your system go haywire. Read on for 12 surprising bites (you've probably eaten at least one today!) that could be to blame for your growling stomach.

Think that 100-percent whole-grain English muffin with peanut butter is going to satisfy you 'til lunch? Not a chance. "'Whole-grain goodness' is anything but," says Perlmutter. "Bread, even the whole-grain kind, is extremely high on the glycemic index and will elevate your blood sugar even more than a Snickers bar."

It sounds crazy, but it's true: Whether it's a candy bar or whole-grain foods, bombarding your body with too many carbs will raise your insulin levels, which in turn can lead to weight gain and more serious health conditions like insulin resistance and eventually diabetes. "Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that ferries glucose (or sugar) into the cells, where it can be used as fuel," explains Perlmutter. In a healthy body, when all the glucose and nutrients from food are absorbed, insulin levels drop and remain at a normal, low level, keeping hunger in check.

But if you overload on too much glucose, eventually your cells become resistant to insulin's signals to retrieve glucose from the blood. This forces your body to store that excess glucose as fat, you gain weight, and your appetite goes unchecked.

Even if it's a hearty, healthy version, cold cereal isn't going to keep you full for very long because there's not a lot of water content. "Studies show that when water is incorporated into a food, it's going to fill you up more than food with a lower water content," says Dawn Jackson Blatner, RD, author of The Superfood Swap Diet. "Think about holding a box of dry cereal&mdashit's super light. You can probably eat most of the box in one sitting," she explains. Sure, you're going to get whole grains, fiber, and vitamins, just as the box claims, but you're not going to feel full for very long.

A better idea: Focus on foods with high-water content, like cooked oatmeal or overnight oats, which have been soaked in water or almond milk overnight.

Bear with us here: Fruit juice may already be on your no-go list, but if you're eating more than one serving of the whole variety (i.e. one banana or one cup of berries), you may want to scale back. "It may have nutritional benefits, but fruit is not going to help suppress your appetite," says Perlmutter. "It contains both fructose and glucose, which won't signal insulin, causing your appetite to rage on."

You can thank our Paleolithic ancestors for this phenomenon. "The only time they ate ripe, sweet berries was at the end of the summer, which signaled to their bodies that winter was approaching and to hang onto an extra layer of fat for insulation," says Perlmutter. Nowadays, we have access to those sweet bites 365 days a year&mdashbut our bodies don't know the difference.

To feel fuller in the a.m., instead of grabbing a fruit medley for breakfast opt for two eggs cooked in olive oil and half an avocado, topped with some sea salt, suggests Perlmutter. It's a meal high in healthy fats and protein, which research shows keeps you fuller longer compared to a high-carb meal.

Yogurt sounds like a smart breakfast choice: You'll get protein, calcium, and an array of good bacteria for digestion and immunity. But five spoonfuls of a sugary, flavored nonfat cup isn't going to make you feel as satisfied as you would if you were chewing something with more texture, says Blatner. Add a few chopped walnuts on top so you'll have something to chew, as research shows chomping down bumps up the fullness factor. Even better: Opt for the plain, two percent Greek version instead of nonfat. Not only will you avoid added sugars, but it also contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a healthy fat that can help promote fat loss. If it's too tart, simply add your own flavor by mixing with a bit of honey.

"With lots of leafy greens, fruit, and almond milk, there's no denying that green smoothies can be healthy," says Blatner. "But if you want to stay full, drinking your calories isn't going to fill you up compared to whole, chewable foods." Research shows that our bodies don't register the calories from food in liquid form as well as food in solid form, so drinking your veggies can result in eating more calories throughout the day. Sure, smoothies go down easy (and fast) through a straw, and it's an easy way to sneak in more vegetables if you're lacking them in your diet, but try "plating" it in a bowl and using a spoon to eat it, Blatner suggests. That slows down how quickly you eat, allowing your body more time to trigger that feeling of fullness. For extra crunch and added satiety, top your smoothie bowl with some seeds or nuts.

This snack became popular during the low-fat craze of the '80s and '90s, Blatner explains. "People thought they should avoid fat completely, so fat-free pretzels sounded like a good idea!" Not true: Pretzels are purely made of processed, refined white flour&mdashand even whole-grain versions aren't much better. This carb-heavy, protein-less snack is going to sock your bloodstream with a dose of glucose, and will leave you feeling hungry soon after you eat them.

We're not saying to stop eating leafy greens, obviously, but it's crucial to know how to make a salad that will actually satisfy your hunger. "An unbalanced salad may be healthy, but it's not filling," says Blatner. Her secret weapon: Mix leafy greens with a protein (like salmon, chicken, or a turkey burger), a serving of whole grains, a lot of fresh produce, and a little healthy fat (like avocado, olive oil, or hard cheese).

Caesar salad, pesto pasta, barbecue sauce smothered on your chicken&mdashif you have too many flavors at one meal, you may be eating more than you mean to, says Blatner. Studies show that having a variety of foods at a meal can increase appetite and calorie intake. So instead of adding tons of seasoning and sauces to your foods, try to stick to one main flavor profile (Blatner suggests pesto or peanut sauce because of their healthy fats content that helps with fullness) and you're likely to feel more satisfied and less hungry after your meal.

Here's another example of a healthy choice gone wrong. Sure, one drink with dinner is perfectly fine&mdashafter all, it's giving you a healthy dose of antioxidants and polyphenols. But having anymore can put a serious dent in your willpower to eat healthy. "Alcohol lowers inhibitions, so you're less likely to stick to your usual healthy foods after you've had a drink or two," says Blatner. A smarter strategy: Decide what you're going to eat (and not eat) before you start boozing, and try to have your alcohol mid-meal after you're already halfway through your healthy entrée (it'll decrease the amount of time you have to drink, making you more likely to stick to one glass&mdashrather than two or three).

It's difficult to feel full while eating sushi, but it's super easy to keep shoveling the bite-sized pieces in your mouth. They're small, yet they pack in a ton of calories&mdashthere could be up to 500 calories and three servings of carbs in just one roll. Instead, fill up on miso soup or salad with ginger dressing before you dig into the main course, Blatner suggests, and stick to one (un-fried) roll for dinner.

People sometimes think that having a small sweet treat after a meal will tame their cravings and signal that it's time to stop eating, but that's not a good strategy, says Blatner. "Sugar is simply empty calories, so having dessert is never going to help you stay full." Plus, it's another high-carb food that will trigger your blood sugar to rise quickly, leaving you feeling even hungrier shortly after you've eaten it. If there's no way you're skipping out (because let's be real), keep the serving size small and the toppings simple&mdashpick one fresh fruit to top it with, like blueberries and peaches, or a few chocolate chips. Don't forget: Variety stimulates appetite, so a myriad of flavors and toppings will only make your tummy grumble more.


Sugar

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Sugar and all of its counterparts (from artificial sweeteners to organic cane sugar and everything in between) are highly addictive because of its associated heightened dopamine release. "Given the fact that we are evolutionarily designed to seek out sweetness in order to survive and that highly concentrated sources of sugar are omnipresent in endless quantities, sugar addiction has become increasingly prevalent and a huge contributor to our current global healthcare crisis," comments Hever. "Refined and processed sweeteners are unrelenting in their ability to entice you to overeat and yet, don't provide satiation, satiety, or nourishment." Don't swear off fruit, though: "Whole food sources of sugar, such as fruit, is different because fruit maintains its fiber and nutrients. That's why you can swiftly consume a couple of candy bars or drink a huge cup of juice without feeling full, but eating 10 apples or pears would be challenging," she adds.


The Science Of ‘Hangry’, Or Why Some People Get Grumpy When They’re Hungry

Have you ever snapped angrily at someone when you were hungry? Or has someone snapped angrily at you when they were hungry? If so, you’ve experienced “hangry” (an amalgam of hungry and angry) – the phenomenon whereby some people get grumpy and short-tempered when they’re overdue for a feed.

But where does hanger come from? And why is it that only some people seem to get hangry? The answer lies in some of the processes that happen inside your body when it needs food.

The Physiology Of Hanger

The carbohydrates, proteins and fats in everything you eat are digested into simple sugars (such as glucose), amino acids and free fatty acids. These nutrients pass into your bloodstream from where they are distributed to your organs and tissues and used for energy.

As time passes after your last meal, the amount of these nutrients circulating in your bloodstream starts to drop. If your blood-glucose levels fall far enough, your brain will perceive it as a life-threatening situation. You see, unlike most other organs and tissues in your body which can use a variety of nutrients to keep functioning, your brain is critically dependent on glucose to do its job.

You’ve probably already noticed this dependence your brain has on glucose simple things can become difficult when you’re hungry and your blood glucose levels drop. You may find it hard to concentrate, for instance, or you may make silly mistakes. Or you might have noticed that your words become muddled or slurred.

Another thing that can become more difficult when you’re hungry is behaving within socially acceptable norms, such as not snapping at people. So while you may be able to conjure up enough brain power to avoid being grumpy with important colleagues, you may let your guard down and inadvertently snap at the people you are most relaxed with or care most about, such as partners and friends. Sound familiar?


20 Low-Calorie Salads That Are Packed with Protein, Fiber, and Tons of Flavor

These healthy recipes can be whipped up year-round and on the table in as little as 10 minutes.

Even salads can be secret calorie bombs (blame ranch dressing!), but if your plate looks too skimpy you&rsquoll wind up starving an hour later. Like many things in life, a good salad is all about balance. You want a mix of satiating protein, fiber-filled fruits and vegetables, and healthy fats. What&rsquos that look like? Keep reading:

How to build a low-calorie salad that keeps you full

Understand your personal needs: First, &ldquolow-calorie&rdquo means something different for everyone, depending on your gender, height, age, and activity level, says Keri Gans, M.S., R.D.N, author of The Small Change Diet. However, she says aiming anywhere between 400 to 500 calories for a meal is a good goal on average. (Find out your estimated calorie needs here.)

Keep it balanced: A truly filling salad has a few key players, says Gans. First, build your base with as many raw or steamed veggies as you can. This ensures your meal includes tons of fiber, nutrients, and variety. Then, add a lean source of protein (such as tofu or chicken), a high-fiber carb (like quinoa or legumes), and a healthy fat (avocado or sliced almonds).

Again, it depends on your personal needs, but a filling salad should be at least 15 grams of protein and 5 grams of fiber.

Watch out for sneaky offenders: &ldquoGrilled veggies can make a salad higher in calories because of the extra oil, so it&rsquos best to order majority of veggies either steamed or raw,&rdquo Gans says. Healthy fats can also rack up in calories if you&rsquore not too careful with your portion sizes. While avocado is a fantastic addition, for example, going for half an avocado instead of one fourth results in more than 80 extra calories.

Finally, &ldquoalways ask for your salad dressing on the side so you can control the amount,&rdquo Gans says. If you&rsquore adding it yourself, make sure you drizzle on no more than two tablespoons.

Now that you have the basics down, you can get to the fun part: eating! Flavorful ingredients, delicious dressings, and the perfect ratio of veggies, protein, and fat have RSVP'd to this party:


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